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normally when a battery is replaced at a dealer they update theh computer as this is a required part of battery replacement. the battery replacement is almost certainly unrelated to the current issue, I am not sure why a connection is believed to exist.
a warning light can only be set off by something the car can sense. mechanical failures normally cannot be sensed until some kind of sensor reading goes out of specification in a manner that the car can perceive - this is why no warning light occured, since you likely had a very quick mechanical failure where no system sensed a problem to allow a warning light to be triggered
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