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There are two sensors at the front either side behind the bumper and one in each door for the side curtain air bags, there is also a seat pressure sensor in the passenger seat so in total there are 6 impact sensors and 1 pressure sensor.
A rear end shunt can set off all or some air bags, it depends very much on how hard the car was hit, the air bag control unit also has a "fail safe" sensor, this needs to be triggered as well as a position sensor, so if the fail safe sensor and for example one of the rear door sensors detected the shunt it would certainly trigger all of the air bags.
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