Helllo, my name is Mark and I will try help you with this.
As this is a diesel then you may have air in the system form when it was allowed to run low.
There is also a chance that the fuel filter will require replacing.
It could have become partially blocked if any debris from the tank has been sucked through when the fuel level was low.
You should be able to bleed it. However you haven't given any details about the car. eg. year, make, model, engine.
It will not have affected the turbo.
Do you need to know anything else?
You can bleed the system by running the intank fuel pump.