You're speaking to Dr. Michael Salkin. Welcome to JustAnswer. I'm currently typing up my reply. Please be patient. This may take a few minutes.
Richard, I'm sorry to hear of this with Hector. Epistaxis (nose bleed) most often results from a tumor in the sinus or nasal passage(s) in dogs of Hector's age. Less commonly, thrombocytopenia (decreased blood platelets) due to blood dyscrasias caused by tick-borne infections, anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning, Evan's syndrome (autoimmune hemolytic anemia + thrombocytopenia), or idiopathic (unknown cause) exists. Hector's vet will want to perform a thorough physical exam including a complete blood and platelet count. Clotting times (PTT/PT) might be assessed as well. If nothing untoward is found in such testing, scoping and biopsy of the nose will be suggested.
It's unclear to me why Hector is coughing but bleeding into the nasopharynx could be responsible or there are changes in his lower respiratory tract (trachea/lungfields) that might be incriminated. Please respond with further questions or concerns if you wish.
The sudden appearance of cataracts is most often associated with uncontrolled diabetes in dogs. However, both uveitis (inflammation of the iris and its attachements) and glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure) can result in peracute (sudden) cataract formation. Please continue our conversation if you wish.
You're looking at having his vet attend to him at your earliest convenience. Without a careful exam and testing, you won't know how Hector can be helped.