Hello, I hope the following assists you.
From the description you've given this would point towards a turbo failure. If the bearings in the turbo fail then oil enters the engine from the turbo oil supply, as diesel is oil the engine is capable of using oil as fuel therefore when the oil from the turbo enters the intake via the turbo it goes into the engine and is burnt. This burning is uncontrolled so the engine gets faster and faster, as it speeds up more oil goes into the engine to continue fuelling it. You did the best thing you could have by stalling the engine, many times people allow the engine to run until it stops
which can cause substantial engine damage.
Remove the air intake from the turbo and inspect the turbo for any excess play in the bearings or damage to the compressor wheel. If you replace the turbo due to it failing this way then clean the oil out of the intake system and intercooler otherwise the first time the new turbo boosts this oil will go into the engine allowing uncontrolled burning again.
I hope this helps but if I can assist further let me know and I'll reply as soon as I'm able to.