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If give out your card details that effectively gives the other side authorisation to use it to make recurrent payments. This is dangerous because it basically allows them to charge your card whenever they believe money is owed and they do not need your permission to do so. Your initial consent is sufficient.
Whilst 99% of companies will never abuse this and will only take money that is genuinely due, a small proportion use this loophole in a fraudulent manner. They often complicate matters even more by not providing any contact details which makes it very difficult to contact them to try and cancel the payments.
If the payments are still being collected and the other party refuses to stop or simply ignores your requests, then you may need to raise a dispute with your bank or credit card provider. Contact them and state that you are disputing these unauthorised payments and request that they do something about it through their fraud protection scheme.
Even if you manage to get the payments stopped, getting your money back is extremely difficult and often impossible.
If you have any fraud protection with your bank you may try to use that
if not, then the only option you have is to sue the company that took the payments. That is highly risky as fraudsters like this do not actively pursue any claims made against them and it leaves you to try and enforce any court judgment you get
this could involve getting the bailiffs in or other enforcement methods but they all cost money, so in the end the most likely outcome is that you would have spent a lot of extra money to make the claim and try to enforce it, without getting anything in return. As such, it is best to write these losses off as a bad experience and be more cautious in the future.