1. Dear Momo, you need to be in a relationship for two years with a partner in order to get a partnership visa. However, here, as your partner only got his British nationality in Summer 2014, the two years would only begin in Summer 2014. So, in Summer 2016, you would be able to apply for a partnership visa. Accordingly, you should seek to apply once the two years are up. Evidence of a permanent relationship, such as sharing a flat together or sharing joint expenses would be evidence that you have been in a settled relationship for at least two years. Be aware that it will take at least nine weeks to process the application. So, I don't know if it will be finalised before you graduate.
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3. As I mentioned in my earlier answer, you can expect any application to take nine weeks to process. That is why I mentioned it as I stated "Be aware that it will take at least nine weeks to process the application. So, I don't know if it will be finalised before you graduate."
4. Evidence of a permanent relationship must be shown by any evidence which suggests you had a relationship. An exchange of rings. Evidence of dating together. Evidence of sharing holidays. Evidence of sharing joint expenses. Evidence of living together. Anything which suggests you were in a relationship.