1. Dear Marge, firstly, you are correct in using the Form EEA(FM) to make your application. Secondly, there will be no English assessment carried out in relation to you. English tests do not exist in relation to Family members of EEA citizens. You have a right to live and work in the UK under the EU rules which do not include a language test. So there will be no English test.
2. Thirdly, in relation to staying in the UK DURING the visa application, you are not covered against deportation just because you have made a visa application. You have a grace period of 28 days before you become an overstayer and liable to deportation. So, you can stay this length of time. However, the sooner you make the application the quicker you will get a response.
3. Be aware that once you live in the UK under this visa for five years, you can then apply for UK citizenship. However, you need to have had private health insurance during this five year period. Additionally, you should get yourself a Permanent Residence card once you have been six months in the UK, as this will verify that you have the right to live and work in the UK. You must have held a Permanent Residence card for at least one year before you make your citizenship application.
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5. The first point you should be aware of, is that the ability to stay in the UK pending a visa application is only given where you are applying for a visa in the same category in which you already hold a visa. As you have a visitor visa, you are now seeking a visa in a different category to that which you hold. So, you have no right to remain in the UK whilst your visa application is being dealt with. Whatever you heard is incorrect!
6. You would be best advised to make a visa application as soon as possible. Don't be delaying it until 20th Sept. However, be aware that you have violated the terms of your visa by staying beyond its expiry date. If you stay beyond this date you risk prejudicing any future visa application you make as this is grounds for refusal of a visa. The visa application normally takes up to six weeks to be dealt with. Not 28 days.
7. Be aware that you only have 28 days before you can be served with a deportation order. This is not the same as having a 28 day grace period during which you can stay. In point of fact, you should leave before your tourist visa expires. However, you can only be deported 28 days later.
8. Be aware that if you seek a tourist visa extension, you can only stay a maximum of 180 days in total. Normally a tourist visa is only for 90 days. Finally, I don't know how you bring yourself within the same category. The simple thing to do is to apply immediately for your permanent EEA visa which will allow you to live and work in the UK. If you have to fly back to Spain for a short period, then so be it. However, you are better to operate within the law. Applying for a further tourist visa is not really the solution, as the question then arises as to why you were applying for these two tourist visas and now a permanent visa. You are simply better off to apply for what you want at the outset.
9. A visa for medical treatment is not in the same category as a tourist visa. I don't know what gave you that idea.
10. You are correct. Apologies for my error.
11. Yes, once you submit the application you may wait in peace for the Home Office's answer, even if your current visa has expired. You are not violating the time limit to leave the country as you have an application in the same category pending.
12. You are welcome. Best wishes!
13. You should file a separate question for these queries.