1. Dear *****, it is "fair use" a quote from another text if you fully attribute the text and the author. So, where you are quoting from a different text, you should include a footnote with a reference to the other text and to the page from which the quote is taken. In this situation, you would then comply with the "Fair use"requirements of copyright.
2. Be aware that if you use a quote from a different text without referring to who is the author then you are guilty of plagiarism and you leave yourself open to being sued for copyright infringement. So, make sure you attribute the quote from the different text by including a footnote reference to the other text and the page reference from which you took it.
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4. Again you would reference the other's research work by a footnote. The footnote would read "See Harper "The evolution of human beings" (Reed Elsevier 1999) p.57" and would contain whatever detail you wish. There is a guide book on how to quote people's work in footnotes, which you can probably purchase on Amazon.