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There are several potential issues with eating sugar. The greatest problem with eating a large amounts of sweets for people that are otherwise healthy is the excessive calories with poor nutrition, which can contribute to weight gain and obesity or nutritional deficiencies. In this context, there is no direct toxic effect of the blood sugar, although the weight gain or nutritional deficiencies can have a variety of systemic effects. A person can limit other caloric intake to limit the adverse effect on weight, but this would mean that there is a reduction of calories from healthy food. Nutrient deficiencies can also be limited by taking a general multi-vitamin supplement, although a pill is not as healthy as eating a healthy, well-balanced diet.
The primary problem with the direct toxic effect of sugar is in diabetics. In this case, the problem is not simply that the sugar is eaten, but that when a diabetic eats more sugar, then the level in the blood becomes elevated. Elevated blood sugar levels can have a direct toxic effect on a variety of organs, but most often affecting the eyes, nerves, and vascular system (causing heart disease, stroke, or poor peripheral blood supply.
It is important to note that one of the common causes of diabetes is weight gain. Eating sugar or sweets, per se, does not cause diabetes, although it will make it much worse. If someone has borderline blood sugars, increased intake of sugar will typically be sufficient to elevate the blood sugar into the diabetic range. But eating sugar/sweets can cause weight gain that will increase the risk of developing diabetes.
It is also important to note that there is a potentially direct toxic effect of eating sweets on dental health, both the teeth and gums. This can be limited by good oral hygiene.
Therefore, it is recommended that people limit sugar and sweets, but if you are at an appropriate weight and do not have diabetes, eating sugar/sweets in moderation would be fine.
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