this sounds like a lack of fuel
So its worth considering fitting a new fuel filter as if only slightly blocked this can lower fuel supply pressure and choke the main pump, the pump will be more sensitive to this when its cold as diesel thickens considerably with low temperatures.
It may have developed an air leak on the fuel supply pipe from the tank to the engine. The engine has no separate lift pump and relies on the built in one in the injection pump. If a leak has developed on the fuel suction pipe then air entering the system will air lock the pump.
Try pumping up the fuel using the hand pump in the engine bay on the filter housing, then crack off / loosen each injector pipe in turn while cranking the engine and getting an assistant to operate the primer. This will expel air from the injection side and the engine should fire up. The problem will be cured by checking the supply pipe along its length for signs of leakage and repairing any you find.
If you daub each pipe joint with heavy grease and the issue goes away then wipe the grease away one at a time to highlight the problem joint
Work your way through each possible joint one at a time and you should find it. I use a slightly flattened piece of brake pipe and some rubber hose from the can of lighter gas to provide a spraying 'wand' and allow a direct blast of gas into each area, especially those difficult to reach with large implements.
It’s also worth getting the fuel pressure checked as if this is low due to a blocked filter or faulty regulator or even a poorly pump will all result in insufficient fuel being delivered to the engine
Might also be worth cleaning out the idle speed control motor / valve as these get clogged up with carbon and some brake cleaner washed through helps free things off.
Might also be worth checking the wiring and connector to the airflow meter for any signs of corrosion or damage. you can do a quick fault find if you unplug the meter and run the engine without it.
if the engine condition is the same then chances are the meter or the connection to it is faulty
It’s also worth cleaning the MAF sensor wires, as they can get coated with dirt over time which then offsets the reading
Use some contact cleaner or brake cleaner to spray onto the wires to remove the dirt – on no account touch the wires with anything as they are very fragile