On the facts I think there is very little you can do to claim the money back from your friend.
Your friend appeared to display his intention with the car, to leave it impounded.
It was your decision to pay the fee to retrieve the car to prevent it being sold. Whilst this was a very generous gesture on your part there does not appear to be any agreement between you and your friend that (1) you and your friend agreed that you would pay the fee to get the car back and (2) the payment made by you would be a loan and that your friend would pay you back. These two elements would be vital to establish that the two of you had an agreement. Without these two elements there is very little you can do, sadly.
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All the best
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