It's an additional fee for independent communication outside of the website. As far as your question, he could change status to B-2 status without leaving the U.S. He would have to file an I-539 which can be found here:
He would have to explain the following:
1) How much time he needs.
2) Why he needs so much time.
3) Why he couldn't do what he needed to do during the time he had on J-1.
4) How he would be supporting himself for this additional time since he is not allowed to work.
5) What STRONG ties he has to his home country to ensure that he will go back.
6) What preparations he has made to go back.
He could also change status to F-1 student status as well if he found a school willing to accept him. Here is a link:
If he wants to stay to work, that's probably not going to happen. All those visas are used up until October 1, 2017. That is correct, 2017, not 2016. The exception is if he applies for a cap-exempt job and those are at an institution of higher education or its affiliated or related nonprofit entities or a nonprofit research organization, or a government research organization. Those are not subject to this numerical cap.
My goal is to provide you with excellent service – if you feel you have received anything less, please reply back as I am happy to address follow-up questions and there is no additional charge. Also, should you need to chat on the phone, private email or need help reviewing documentation, I am happy to do so for a small additional cost. Let me know if you are interested in these – I am happy to give you more details! If you have no further questions (at this time) please leave a positive rating for my service. I would sincerely ***** ***** You can do that by clicking on the 3rd, 4th or 5th stars or smiley faces if you see them. If you do not see any stars or smiley faces, please click on my name and they should come out. Also, your session does NOT close when leaving a positive rating, so you can continue to ask additional questions without additional charge. Thank you for your understanding.