Hi, I'm sorry to hear that your puppy is having some trouble with urination. I hope to help you to figure out what's going on.
The most common causes of what you are describing--the increase in urination, smaller volumes of urine, and licking the vulvar area is a urinary tract infection. There is also a possibility that this is a vaginitis (infection of the vagina)--both of these conditions are very common in puppies.
These are conditions that are typically treated with a short course of oral antibiotics. I would recommend taking your puppy to the vet, along with a urine sample if you happen to be talented enough to collect one (I find that sliding a disposable pie pan under the dog while she's peeing works nicely).
The vet will do a physical examination, will obtain a urine sample if you didn't bring one, check the urine sample, and then give you the diagnosis. If there is bacteria and white blood cells in the urine, then they will likely prescribe an antibiotic. Thankfully this typically clears up the infection pretty promptly. If working, you should see improvement within the first 3 days after starting the medication.
I know a urinary tract infection can be really challenging in puppies because it aggravates potty training. I hope that you're able to get your puppy outside very frequently to urinate, as she is experiencing a lot of urge to urinate.
I hope that this has answered your question about what is likely going on and what to do about it. Please feel free to ask follow-up questions that you may have. I wish you the best of luck with your puppy! There is nothing cuter than a golden retriever puppy, and I hope she feels well soon!