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Hello, my name is Jim and I am a qualified lawyer happy to help you today.
It sounds like they own the house as joint tenants which means 50/50. They are not married so after the 50% it comes down to how much each of them have contributed to the mortgage and home improvements - if your Son has contributed more then he should be entitled to more. And if she refuses to sell then he can apply to the local county court to force a sale - which is easy to do. Three property valuations would be needed so that the court can determine the average market price and to work out what each of them would be entitled to. I presume she is willing to sell the property?. If not or if there is a dispute over equity, an application to force a sale can be made - please come back to me for further details if required.
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Thanks, so am I. Did you see my response?
He can - he needs to sever the joint tenancy and own the property as tenants in common so he can sell his share to someone else. Yes, he would be entitled to half of what they have paid.
He can do it himself (https://www.gov.uk/joint-property-ownership/change-from-joint-tenants-to-tenants-in-common) or he can instruct a local law firm which deals with conveyancing to do it for him.