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Hello, I am Jose Sebastian. Your automotive expert, It's a pleasure to me to attend your question. Thank you very much for trust in just answer.
Dear customer, white smoke means that there is excess air in the combustion, which makes me think that it is likely that you have suffered a turbo problem.
Also white smoke can mean that there is water in the combustion, usually if it overheats it can damage the cylinder head gasket which allows air to pass into the cylinders.
But from what you describe in your query it is possible that the problem is the turbo as the rpm varied a lot and there are no strange noises and so on....
For example, if the problem comes from the shaft or one of the blades, the turbo can be repaired. On the other hand, if the problem is caused by excessive wear on the turbo or severe damage, the turbo must be replaced.
That rattle could be coming from the turbo, from what you describe I would focus on the turbo overhaul.
Is there anything else I can help you with?
Be very careful, if the turbo detached a metal part, this metal part can enter the engine through the intake, it is better not to drive the vehicle.
I hope this info to be helpful, my goal is to give you the best advice i can, I hope to be helpful, if you have any doubt or want to know anything else please do not hesitate to reply back.
Kind regards, Sebastian.