Without the requested information, I can only provide you with general information, which hopefully will still be useful to you. First of all, I am sorry to hear about the issues you have experienced in your situation.
Taking time off to look after someone dependent on you is a legal right, as long as it is for an emergency, rather than something you knew of in advance. See here for a summary of these rights:
You should not be penalised or treated detrimentally for taking time off for that reason.
In any event, if you are having issues in the workplace, whether about this or anything else, you can consider a grievance, which is the usual way to deal with anything like that.
You can get a detailed explanation of the grievance process here:
In summary, an employee is expected to submit their concerns in writing and send them to their line manager, or whoever is nominated as the person to send grievances to under an official workplace grievance policy.
The complaint should include details of what the grievance is about, any evidence that may exist which is relevant and also what the employee wants their employer to do about this issue.
Once the grievance has been submitted, the employer is expected to arrange a formal grievance hearing, inviting the employee to attend and discuss the nature of their complaint. The meeting is also as an opportunity to ask for further clarification or information, as required.
Following the meeting, the employer will take time to consider all the issues and evidence and then make a decision, communicating it to the employee. If the outcome is not to the complainant’s satisfaction, they can appeal and get a second opinion from a different person assigned by the employer to consider the appeal. Once the appeal is also completed, that brings to an end the formal grievance process and there is no option to escalate it further internally.