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Category: Engineering
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Experience:  MA Clinical Psychology; BS Health Sciences
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Low carbon steel is to be cold-worked by bending and forming

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Low carbon steel is to be cold-worked by bending and forming components from sheet metal, to produce a dcar door panel. Explain how this method raises the hardness and UTS of the material
Submitted: 3 years ago.
Category: Engineering
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Cold-working steel strengthens the metal and increases its ultimate tensile strength (UTS) by manipulating the crystalline structure of the metal at low temperatures. Stress-induced microscopic deformations to the metal from the bending, which are referred to as dislocations, cause a rearrangement in the lattice of the metal. As the material is worked and the dislocations increase, the material eventually builds up a resistance to forming additional dislocations. The dislocations change the average crystallite size, which leads to the Hall-Petch effect. That is, the grain boundaries eventually impede dislocation, and this translate into the material having added strength.