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1. Dear Marta, you cannot leave the UK for greater than 180 days in one 12 month period taken from when you entered the UK. Accordingly, your absence in South East Asia should not exceed 180 days if you wish to apply for INDEFINITE Leave to Remain. This will give you the right to remain indefinitely in the UK. However, be aware that as a polish citizen you can apply for a residence card even though you don't have Indefinite Leave to Remain. This residence card merely indicates you have the right to live and work in the UK and to access benefits such as the NHS. Be aware that you must have either been working for five years and paying National Health Insurance contributions or have had private health insurance if you want to get both Indefinite Leave to Remain and citizenship. This point is important as many are refused on this basis.
2. If you wish to apply for UK citizenship, then you both have to be present in the uK when you make the citizenship application and you cannot have been more than 90 days outside the UK for that last "qualifying year" in which the application is made. So here, you cannot be more than 90 days in South East Asia if you intend to apply for UK citizenship. Over the five year qualifying period you can be up to 450 days outside the UK but only 90 of those can be in the final year. However, be aware that when you make the application for either citizenship or Indefinite Leave to Remain, you should make it from within the uK AND BE present there at that time even if only for one day.
3. YOu are allowed to leave the UK POST application provided you comply with the relevant rules on absences from the UK. So long as you don't infringe the general rules, there is no prohibition on leaving the UK on the next available flight.
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5. Dear Marta, Yes, you cannot be outside the UK for more than 180 days during any of these 12 month periods. That is correct. Secondly, yes you can have some days within one year and some within another 12 month period. However, they must not exceed 180 consecutive days. Finally, when you are applying for ILR, your last 12 months is known as the "qualifying period". Here, you cannot be 180 days out of the UK for this qualifying period.
6. Dear Marta, be aware that since 2006, Polish citizens no longer need to apply for ILR. They can go straight to citizenship so long as they have a residence card for 12 months. So, by applying for ILR you are adding an unnecessary hurdle in your application. For this reason, I would suggest you instead simply get a residence card which will show you are visa free for 12 months and then apply for citizenship. It is a precondition for citizenship that you have been visa free for 12 months before you make your application. However, be aware here of the 90 requirement for citizenship. This is why I would advise you to only be 90 days in South East Asia as you will need to be under 90 days outside the UK for the final year before you apply for citizenship.