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Ben Jones
Ben Jones, UK Lawyer
Category: Law
Satisfied Customers: 66556
Experience:  Qualified Solicitor
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I have just recieved an official letter stating a breach of

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I have just recieved an official letter stating a breach of contract from my previous employer
JA: Have you discussed this with a manager or HR? Or with a lawyer?
Customer: no
JA: What is your employment status? Are you an employee, freelancer, consultant or contractor? Do you belong to a union?
Customer: i own my own business now, but only just started it up.
JA: Anything else you want the Lawyer to know before I connect you?
Customer: no
Customer: replied 5 months ago.
I have added the letter which has been sent.
Customer: replied 5 months ago.
Sorry, to be clear. The letter was sent to my Business partner. I have not received one. We have not made any sales/transactions on the business entity incub8. Vicky was indeed still on notice when the business was set up on the 10th October.

Hello, I’m Ben, a UK lawyer and will be dealing with your case today. I may also need to ask some questions to determine the legal position.

What do you specifically want to know about this please?

Customer: replied 5 months ago.
Advice on the content of the letter in terms of its validity and then as to whether my business partner should do as she is being asked; and also if there is anything I can personally do to protect myself.

Thank you. I only have 2 pages of the letter but it seems there are more?

Customer: replied 5 months ago.
That’s odd.. it shows 5 uploaded...uploading again here.

Thanks but the last page is still missing by the looks of it?

Customer: replied 5 months ago.
this is the last page.

Thank you. It is a rather common occurrence for employment contracts to contain post-termination restrictive covenants. An employer would understandably want to protect their business from a departing employee's knowledge of confidential information, business connections, influence over clients, suppliers, staff, etc. However, a covenant that restricts an employee's post-termination activities will be automatically unenforceable by being in restraint of trade, unless the employer can show that it was there to protect a legitimate business interest and did so in a reasonable way. I know they have said you should not assume you can get out of these easily but that is not automatically the case and it very much depends on the circumstances.

The first thing to consider is what legitimate business interests (LBIs) can the employer try and protect? The most common ones are:

{C}· Goodwill (trade connections with customers and suppliers)

{C}· Trade secrets and confidential information

{C}· Stability of the workforce (preventing poaching of employees)

If they are trying to protect an LBI, any relevant restriction must be drafted no wider than is reasonably necessary to protect that interest. Generally, the courts would try and balance the interests of the employer's business and the employee’s right to freedom of movement and to earn a living.

When considering the most common types of restrictive covenant, these include:

1. Non-solicitation covenants – used to prevent an employee from enticing away their ex-employer’s customers. Solicitation generally means “directly or indirectly requesting, persuading or encouraging clients of the former employer to transfer their business ". There has to be a positive act by the employee such as to "tempt, lure or persuade” the client to do business with them. Situations where the client makes contact first are not automatically excluded and can still be caught under non-solicitation restrictions, although it would depend on the individual circumstances. Also it can be acceptable for departing employees to advise clients they are leaving and even leave contact details with them as that would not automatically amount to solicitation. Ideally, the covenant should be restricted to specific customers with whom the employee had contact during a specified period before leaving. Other relevant factors may include the employee's level of seniority in the business and the extent of their role in securing new business.

2. Non-dealing covenants - wider restrictions, which not only restrict solicitation of clients but any dealings with them, such as provision of services. The enforceability of such covenant will depend on the interest being protected and can be influenced by a substantial personal connection the employee enjoys with a specific client. However, such a covenant will not be enforceable if it prevents any sort of contact with the client. The restriction must be focused on the specific type of contact that would directly affect the employer's business.

3. Non-competition covenants - prevent an employee from working with a competing business or setting up to work in competition with their ex-employer. A covenant simply wishing to prevent competition will not be enforceable. However, a non-competition covenant trying to protect an LBI can be. Such covenants will generally only be reasonable if in the process of working in competition, the employee uses trade secrets or sensitive confidential information belonging to their ex-employer, or their influence over clients is so great that such a restriction is necessary. If these covenants include a geographical area, their enforceability will also depend on the area they are trying to cover, such as density and population and what is considered reasonable in the circumstances.

Whilst restrictive covenants are often used as a scare tactic by employers, if an employee has allegedly acted in breach of a covenant and the employer wants to take the matter further they can do so. The following legal remedies are available to employers:

{C}· Injunction – this order of the court would seek to stop the employee from doing certain things that would make them in breach of the restrictive covenant, such as not to contact certain clients, not to use certain confidential information or not to work for a specific competitor

{C}· Damages - compensation for loses which have directly resulted from the breach of the covenants, although it would only be possible if such losses are identifiable

In summary, there are various factors which deal with the reasonableness and enforceability of restrictive covenants. Whether a specific restriction is enforceable will always depend on the individual circumstances, the interest being protected and whether it has been reasonably drafted. In the end, only a court can decide if a covenant is legally enforceable so unless the employer goes to court and succeeds, they will only be able to rely on the employee’s own compliance with the restrictions. That is when the affected employee has to decide whether to do so or risk the employer taking this further.

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