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Hi, I'm Lea and I have reviewed your query.
To be clear, was the mother living in England permanently - or was she here for a visit?
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It's really whether it was her intention to remain in England and settle with the baby here (with you), or whether she always intended to return to Belfast. If she has a return address there, where she lived before, that could be used as evidence that she didn't intend to settle here permanently.
In any case, as they are currently here, you can apply for a prohibited steps order for her not to be able to travel with the baby without your consent or an order of the court. You can do so as a matter of urgency (since you don't know if she'll just pack up and go) and without notice to her until the order is in place, by filing a C100 application. You can find the form here: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/734888/C100_eng_0818.pdf
The cost to file is £215, unless you are on a low income or benefits in which case you may qualify for fee remission. You will need to call your local family court for an appointment to file the paperwork. You can find the court here: https://courttribunalfinder.service.gov.uk/search/
You will need four copies of the C100 to take to the court. The court will decide whether to list the application that day or whether to list it after giving notice to the mother (unlikely if you are genuinely concerned that she will flee if given notice).
Does that assist?
You're correct in that the child is in England and therefore falls under the jurisdiction of the courts here, and you have parental responsibility, hence you being able to make an application for a prohibited steps order - that is a right given to you by virtue of having PR - if you did not have PR there would be nothing you could do. But, my comment regarding whether she was here permanently or not, was because she is very likely to say that the move was not intended to be permanent.
You can prevent her leaving with the baby without your consent by applying for the PSO - if you wait until she's gone, you'll have a harder time convincing a court to make her come back. If you apply for the PSO, you will both have the opportunity to put your case across to the court, and the court will make a decision with the child's best interests as paramount.
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You need to get the order in place as quickly as you can - which is why I suggested an urgent application, without notice to her. If you complete the form and take it to court tomorrow (call the court for an appointment first) then you might get a hearing before a judge the same day and get an interim order in place preventing her from leaving. If you do nothing and she leaves, you'd have to make an application for the child's return.
It's not illegal or breaking the law to withhold the passport. If that is the only way you can prevent the mother taking the child whilst you await the court hearing, then do so. It's a civil matter. Mother would have to apply to court to have the passport returned to her.
Please post any further queries as new questions.
All the best.