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Connective tissue diseases are autoimmune diseases such as lupus.
Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and/or C-reactive protein -
Leukocytosis, normochromic anemia, or thrombocytosis
Hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitic C serologies
Elevated creatinine level
Elevated levels of liver enzymes
Hypergammaglobulinemia - Found in 30% of patients with PAN
Autoimmune Glomerular Nephritis,
Complete blood cell count (CBC) with differential
Serum electrolytes, BUN, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and liver function tests: The most common abnormality is an increased serum creatinine level. However, the level can be normal at presentation. Tissue enzyme (ie, LDH, CPK) levels may be elevated if the amount of inflammation is significant enough to result in myalgias.
Urinalysis with microscopy: Proteinuria is almost always present but is rarely greater than 2-3 g in 24 hours. Microscopic hematuria is invariably present and may be the only clue to renal disease at presentation. The presence of red cell casts indicates glomerular inflammation and is a very helpful clue.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate: Although a nonspecific finding, the rate is usually elevated with active disease.
C-reactive protein: levels are elevated and correspond with disease activity.
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer
ANCA with ELISA subtyping
Urine and serum protein electrophoresis
Lichen planus is generally a clinical diagnosis and no tests are usually required but a skin biopsy may be done in case there is doubt.
Direct immunofluorescence study in lichen planus (LP) reveals globular deposits of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and complement mixed with apoptotic keratinocytes.
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