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Hello Daniel, I am one of the experts on Just Answer and pleased to be able to help you with your question.
Do you have a National Insurance (NI) Number?
Before you can even think of applying for a job you will need a NI Number. You must visit your nearest Job Centre to start this quest.
If you do obtain employment your new employer will use your NI number to obtain a tax code for you. It should be of the order of 1185L which will be applied as an Emergency Code anyway. Your employer will then deduct Income Tax (IT) and NI contributions through the Pay As You Earn (PAYE) system from your earnings. As you are not a citizen of an EEA country you may not have an entitlement to a Personal Allowance (PA) in whuch case the tax code will be 0T.
I understand that a similar system is operated in the States. My colleague in NYC had similar deductions made when she was employed.
I do hope that you have found my reply of assistance.
Whichever way the cat jumps you will need a NI Number, a laborious process I regret.
Yes you will until you reach the statutory retirement age. This was recently adjusted as follows:
State pension age equalized at 65 in 2018. Increasing to 66 by 2020, 67 by 2028 and 68 by 2037. You could be badly caught with this age moving ahead as does your age.
Husbands an wives are entirely different persons in the UK tax system though spouses can surrender up to 10% of their PA to their other half. Your wife will pay no tax unless her income rises to the PA level. However, NI contributions kick in much lower, at GBP 6205 per annum. If income does not reach the PA level then it is a use it or loose it allowance.
In a word no, spouses are for tax purposes entirely different persons and each must self assess unless HMRC tell them not to bother.
None whatsoever, went over 20 years ago. Deductions as you know them from the States you can forget. About the only allowable ones for employees are pension contributions.
If you reside in the UK for over 183 days in any one tax year, 6 April to following 5 April, you are liable to UK taxation on your world wide income and will have to rely on the Double Taxation Treaty between the UK and the USA, and indeed many individual State within the Union as well, for protection.
Oh yes and as it is not taxed in the States you will receive no tax credits as a result.
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Delighted to have been of assistance.
Thank you for your support.