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Yes sadly this does happen and is a big problem with all the plastic waste entering the oceans. The plastic rubbish sits in the stomach and takes up space which is supposed to used for food. If too much is ingested the whale will slowly starve to death. See this article for an example: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/04/dead-pregnant-whale-plastic-italy/
Other marine life can be affected in a similar way, sea turtles for example are also in danger if they ingest plastic waste.
I hope this answers your question, let me know if you need anything else.
Yes it's very sad and indeed one of the biggest crises that humans will have to sort out over the next few years. Whales tend to swallow plastic as it may look like their food sources such as small squid and jelly fish, they also have huge mouths for swallowing crill so plastic bags etc can end up in there too. Killer whales tend to be more predatory going after fish, birds etc so are less likely to ingest plastic waste or floating clothing although in theory it would be possible if it somehow seemed to mimic their prey